਀㰀䴀䔀吀䄀 渀愀洀攀㴀䜀䔀一䔀刀䄀吀伀刀 挀漀渀琀攀渀琀㴀∀䴀匀䠀吀䴀䰀 㠀⸀  ⸀㘀  ㄀⸀㄀㤀 ㄀㤀∀㸀㰀⼀䠀䔀䄀䐀㸀 ਀㰀䠀㈀㸀㰀䄀 琀椀琀氀攀㴀∀䌀漀爀爀甀瀀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 倀爀椀挀攀 漀昀 䌀漀昀昀攀攀 椀渀 䌀栀椀渀愀∀ 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀猀椀氀欀爀漀愀搀椀渀琀氀⸀渀攀琀⼀戀氀漀最⼀㈀ ㄀㄀⼀ 㠀⼀ 㐀⼀挀漀爀爀甀瀀琀椀漀渀ⴀ愀渀搀ⴀ琀栀攀ⴀ瀀爀椀挀攀ⴀ漀昀ⴀ挀漀昀昀攀攀ⴀ椀渀ⴀ挀栀椀渀愀⼀∀㸀䌀漀爀爀甀瀀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 倀爀椀挀攀 漀昀 䌀漀昀昀攀攀 椀渀 䌀栀椀渀愀㰀⼀䄀㸀㰀⼀䠀㈀㸀
Posted on August 4th, 2011 by David Dayton
਀㰀䐀䤀嘀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀攀渀琀爀礀㸀

I had a very interesting lunch last week with some foreign (overseas-Chinese) investors, the manager of one retail location of a int’l coffee chain and one of the lawyers that does some work for the same.  The discussion was centered around opening up a new western franchise food venture in southern China.  I was asked to participate and comment on foreigners managing supply chains and dealing with regular purchase negotiations in China.

਀㰀倀㸀吀栀攀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀椀渀最 瀀愀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀瘀攀爀猀愀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 洀攀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 琀栀攀 挀漀昀昀攀攀 猀栀漀瀀 渀甀洀戀攀爀猀 ⠀愀氀琀栀漀甀最栀 琀栀漀猀攀 眀攀爀攀 猀琀愀最最攀爀椀渀最氀礀 栀椀最栀 昀漀爀 愀 猀椀渀最氀攀 挀漀昀昀攀攀 猀栀漀瀀 漀渀 愀 洀漀渀琀栀氀礀 戀愀猀椀猀⤀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 爀愀琀栀攀爀 琀栀攀 漀瀀攀渀 愀渀搀 瘀攀爀礀 洀愀琀琀攀爀ⴀ漀昀ⴀ昀愀挀琀 搀椀猀挀甀猀猀椀漀渀 漀昀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀 ᰀ愠搀搀椀琀椀漀渀愀氀 攀砀瀀攀渀猀攀猀ᴀ†琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 氀愀眀礀攀爀 ⠀椀爀漀渀椀挀愀氀氀礀⤀ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 洀愀渀愀最攀爀 猀愀椀搀 椀琀 挀漀猀琀 琀栀攀 挀漀昀昀攀攀 猀栀漀瀀 戀漀琀栀 琀漀 猀攀琀 甀瀀 愀渀搀 樀甀猀琀 欀攀攀瀀 琀栀攀椀爀 搀漀漀爀猀 漀瀀攀渀㰀⼀倀㸀

Intellectually I know that corruption is everywhere here.  And I’ve seen a lot of corruption first hand too; I even wrote about it in this month’s China Sourcer magazine.   But I seemed to be the only one that was taken back by the amount and the frequency at which corruption affects their coffee business.  Afterwards, the investors focused simply on how the new numbers could be managed and how to deal with the accounting—no one even batted an eye at the stories or points where corruption would affect their potential business.  Just for perspective, the numbers they were talking about to pay for corruption were comparable to their total start-up costs for a 70-80 square meter shop in a mall in downtown Shenzhen (rental contract and deposit with additional “gifts” to the mall owners/management office, build-out, equipment, etc.).  That’s DOUBLE their actual costs for the first year of business!!

਀㰀倀㸀䠀攀爀攀 椀猀 愀 氀椀猀琀 ⠀洀愀搀攀 愀昀琀攀爀 琀栀攀 洀攀攀琀椀渀最 眀愀猀 漀瘀攀爀 昀爀漀洀 眀栀愀琀 䤀 爀攀洀攀洀戀攀爀⤀ 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀瀀攀挀椀昀椀挀 椀猀猀甀攀猀 琀栀愀琀 眀攀爀攀 搀椀猀挀甀猀猀攀搀⸀㰀⼀倀㸀

1. Govt corruption/cost of bribes.  Inspections were seen to be the most expensive.  Not only do you have to have a series of pre-opening governmental inspections that will not happen without appropriate sized “gifts” (read thousands of USD per square meter) but once the officials do come out you’ll have to “take care” of them while they are there (and whenever they come back too).  These aren’t fees paid to get things done illegally, these are red-envelopes that you give to govt officials or they just won’t do their job.

਀㰀倀㸀㰀匀吀刀伀一䜀㸀㈀⸀ 䌀漀猀琀 漀昀 最漀漀搀猀⼀攀砀琀爀愀猀⸀㰀⼀匀吀刀伀一䜀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 䄀瀀瀀愀爀攀渀琀氀礀 琀栀攀爀攀 愀爀攀 猀瀀攀挀椀昀椀挀 爀攀焀甀椀爀攀洀攀渀琀猀 昀漀爀 瀀愀琀攀渀琀攀搀 氀漀最漀猀 愀渀搀 漀琀栀攀爀 椀琀攀洀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀漀猀攀 挀漀猀琀 瀀爀攀洀椀甀洀 瀀爀椀挀攀猀᐀洠攀愀渀椀渀最Ⰰ ᰀ愠 挀栀愀椀爀 琀栀愀琀 猀栀漀甀氀搀 挀漀猀琀 ㄀  夀 挀漀猀琀猀 琀栀攀洀 㠀  夀⸀ᴀ☠渀戀猀瀀㬀 匀椀最渀愀最攀 眀愀猀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 㔀  ─ 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 琀礀瀀椀挀愀氀 洀愀爀欀攀琀 瀀爀椀挀攀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀⸀㰀⼀倀㸀
਀㰀倀㸀㰀匀吀刀伀一䜀㸀匀椀搀攀 匀琀漀爀礀㨀㰀⼀匀吀刀伀一䜀㸀 䄀琀 氀攀愀猀琀 琀眀椀挀攀 琀栀愀琀 䤀 挀愀渀 爀攀洀攀洀戀攀爀Ⰰ 䤀ᤀ瘠攀 猀攀攀渀 瀀漀氀椀挀攀 搀爀椀瘀攀 甀瀀 琀漀 猀琀爀攀攀琀 昀漀漀搀 瘀攀渀搀漀爀猀Ⰰ 琀愀欀攀 攀瘀攀爀礀琀栀椀渀最 琀栀攀礀 愀爀攀 猀攀氀氀椀渀最 愀渀搀 搀爀椀瘀攀 漀昀昀⸀ ☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䤀ᤀ瘠攀 渀攀瘀攀爀 戀攀攀渀 昀愀猀琀 攀渀漀甀最栀 琀漀 最攀琀 椀琀 漀渀 昀椀氀洀⸀ ☀渀戀猀瀀㬀伀渀挀攀 眀栀攀渀 䤀 眀愀猀 琀爀礀椀渀最 琀漀 最攀琀 愀 焀甀椀挀欀 瀀椀挀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 洀礀 眀椀昀攀 瀀栀礀猀椀挀愀氀氀礀 瀀甀猀栀攀搀 洀礀 挀愀洀攀爀愀 愀眀愀礀 愀渀搀 琀漀氀搀 洀攀 瘀攀爀礀 搀椀爀攀挀琀氀礀 琀漀 渀攀瘀攀爀 攀瘀攀爀 搀漀 琀栀愀琀 ☀渀戀猀瀀㬀⠀昀椀氀洀 瀀漀氀椀挀攀⤀ 愀最愀椀渀⸀ ☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䄀渀漀琀栀攀爀 琀椀洀攀 䤀 眀愀猀 愀挀琀甀愀氀氀礀 戀甀礀椀渀最 昀爀甀椀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 瀀漀氀椀挀攀 挀愀洀攀 愀渀搀 琀漀漀欀 攀瘀攀爀礀琀栀椀渀最⸀ ☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䤀 眀愀猀 琀爀礀椀渀最 琀漀 瀀甀氀氀 琀栀攀 戀愀猀欀攀琀 戀愀挀欀 愀渀搀 眀愀猀 礀攀氀氀椀渀最 愀琀 琀栀攀洀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀礀 樀甀猀琀 氀攀琀 洀攀 欀攀攀瀀 琀栀攀 戀愀猀欀攀琀 椀渀 洀礀 栀愀渀搀 愀渀搀 琀漀漀欀 攀瘀攀爀礀琀栀椀渀最 攀氀猀攀 愀渀搀 焀甀椀挀欀氀礀 爀漀搀攀 漀昀昀⸀ ☀渀戀猀瀀㬀一漀 漀渀攀 攀氀猀攀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 琀椀洀攀 攀瘀攀爀 琀爀椀攀搀 琀漀 栀攀氀瀀 漀爀 猀琀漀瀀 眀栀愀琀 眀愀猀 最漀椀渀最 漀渀⸀ ☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䄀昀琀攀爀眀愀爀搀 愀 昀爀椀攀渀搀 琀漀氀搀 洀攀 琀栀攀爀攀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 䤀 挀漀甀氀搀 搀漀 戀甀琀 最攀琀 洀礀猀攀氀昀 椀渀 琀爀漀甀戀氀攀 猀漀 䤀ᤀ搠 戀攀 眀椀猀攀 樀甀猀琀 琀漀 氀攀琀 椀琀 最漀⸀㰀⼀倀㸀㰀⼀䈀䰀伀䌀䬀儀唀伀吀䔀㸀

3. Lack of consistent quality.  Managing suppliers is probably the hardest part of the job.  The quality is never the same and qtty’s vary from day to day—some days orders don’t even show up!  In addition to cultivating and maintaining great guanxi with your main suppliers you have to have immediate options for back-ups if your small.  Busy holiday weekends, even for big famous brand stores, can be hit or miss on qtty’s.

਀㰀倀㸀㰀匀吀刀伀一䜀㸀㐀⸀ 䔀洀瀀氀漀礀攀攀 搀椀猀栀漀渀攀猀琀礀⼀昀椀渀愀渀挀攀猀⸀㰀⼀匀吀刀伀一䜀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 一漀 眀愀礀 礀漀甀 挀愀渀 琀爀甀猀琀 愀渀礀 攀洀瀀氀漀礀攀攀猀 琀漀 琀爀愀挀欀 戀漀琀栀 最漀漀搀猀 愀渀搀 洀漀渀攀礀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 夀漀甀 栀愀瘀攀 琀漀 猀攀瀀愀爀愀琀攀 琀栀攀 琀眀漀 愀渀搀 礀漀甀 栀愀瘀攀 琀漀 栀愀瘀攀 猀漀洀攀漀渀攀 攀氀猀攀 琀栀愀琀 礀漀甀 琀爀甀猀琀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀氀礀 琀漀 搀漀 琀栀攀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀椀渀最⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 䴀甀氀琀椀瀀氀攀 瘀攀爀猀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀挀挀漀甀渀琀椀渀最 爀攀挀漀爀搀猀 愀爀攀 愀氀猀漀 渀攀攀搀攀搀 昀漀爀 瘀愀爀椀漀甀猀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀攀搀 瀀愀爀琀椀攀猀⸀ ⠀䴀攀愀渀椀渀最 琀栀愀琀 愀氀漀渀最 眀椀琀栀 愀挀琀甀愀氀 挀漀漀欀椀渀最Ⰰ 挀漀漀欀椀渀最 琀栀攀 戀漀漀欀猀 椀猀 愀渀 愀搀搀椀琀椀漀渀愀氀 昀甀氀氀 琀椀洀攀 樀漀戀ጀ猠攀攀 眀栀愀琀 䤀 搀椀搀 琀栀攀爀攀㼀 ☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䌀漀漀欀椀渀最㼀⤀㰀⼀倀㸀

To my way of thinking there are two different kinds of corruption in China: Institutional and Systemic.

਀㰀倀㸀圀栀愀琀 䤀 洀攀愀渀 戀礀 䤀渀猀琀椀琀甀琀椀漀渀愀氀 挀漀爀爀甀瀀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 琀栀攀 欀椀渀搀 琀栀愀琀ᤀ猠 渀漀琀攀搀 椀渀 瀀漀椀渀琀 漀渀攀 愀戀漀瘀攀 愀渀搀 椀渀 洀礀 漀眀渀 攀砀瀀攀爀椀攀渀挀攀猀 眀椀琀栀 猀攀琀琀椀渀最 甀瀀 愀渀 漀昀昀椀挀攀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 䤀琀ᤀ猠 渀漀琀 瀀愀礀椀渀最 甀渀搀攀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀 琀愀戀氀攀 琀漀 最攀琀 琀栀椀渀最猀 搀漀渀攀 椀氀氀攀最愀氀氀礀Ⰰ 椀琀ᤀ猠 渀漀琀 挀栀攀愀琀椀渀最 漀渀 瀀愀瀀攀爀眀漀爀欀 漀爀 栀椀搀椀渀最 琀愀砀攀猀 眀椀琀栀 猀漀洀攀 ᰀ漠昀昀椀挀椀愀氀ᴀ†愀猀猀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 䤀琀ᤀ猠 猀椀洀瀀氀礀 ᰀ瀠愀礀椀渀最⼀最椀昀琀椀渀最ᴀ†攀砀琀爀愀 樀甀猀琀 琀漀 最攀琀 漀昀昀椀挀椀愀氀猀 琀漀 挀漀洀攀 搀漀 琀栀攀椀爀 樀漀戀᐀椠昀 礀漀甀 搀漀渀ᤀ琠 瀀愀礀Ⰰ 琀栀攀礀 眀椀氀氀 樀甀猀琀 ᰀ映漀爀最攀琀ᴀ†琀栀攀椀爀 愀瀀瀀漀椀渀琀洀攀渀琀 漀爀 戀攀 ᰀ漠甀琀 漀昀 琀漀眀渀ᴀ†眀栀攀渀攀瘀攀爀 礀漀甀 琀爀礀 琀漀 洀攀攀琀 漀爀 樀甀猀琀 昀氀愀琀 漀甀琀 琀攀氀氀 礀漀甀 渀漀 甀渀氀攀猀猀 琀栀攀礀 猀攀攀 愀渀 攀渀瘀攀氀漀瀀攀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 吀栀椀猀 椀猀 愀 䠀唀䜀䔀 瀀爀漀戀氀攀洀 昀漀爀 洀漀猀琀 䌀栀椀渀攀猀攀 挀椀琀椀稀攀渀猀 愀猀 眀攀氀氀 愀猀 昀漀爀 愀渀礀漀渀攀 琀爀礀椀渀最 琀漀 猀琀愀爀琀 愀 渀攀眀 戀甀猀椀渀攀猀猀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 倀愀猀猀瀀漀爀琀猀Ⰰ 栀甀欀漀甀猀Ⰰ 猀挀栀漀漀氀 瀀氀愀挀攀洀攀渀琀Ⰰ 爀攀最椀猀琀爀愀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 愀渀礀 欀椀渀搀 愀氀氀 爀攀焀甀椀爀攀 猀琀愀洀瀀猀 昀爀漀洀 猀瀀攀挀椀昀椀挀 最漀瘀琀 漀昀昀椀挀椀愀氀猀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 䄀渀搀 眀栀攀渀 琀栀攀 攀渀昀漀爀挀攀爀猀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀 愀爀攀 挀漀爀爀甀瀀琀Ⰰ 琀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 愀戀猀漀氀甀琀攀氀礀 渀漀琀栀椀渀最 礀漀甀 挀愀渀 搀漀⸀㰀⼀倀㸀

To deal with institutional corruption I’ve consciously stayed away from getting entangled in anything do with government regulations and procedures.  Outside of annual company registration work and setting up our office we stay as far away from the govt as possible.

਀㰀倀㸀匀礀猀琀攀洀椀挀 挀漀爀爀甀瀀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 欀椀渀搀᐀瀠愀礀洀攀渀琀猀 洀愀搀攀 琀漀 昀愀挀琀漀爀椀攀猀 琀漀 最攀琀 愀挀挀攀猀猀 琀漀 爀攀猀琀爀椀挀琀攀搀 䤀倀 漀爀 琀漀 最攀琀 椀渀ⴀ瀀爀漀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 猀漀漀渀攀爀 漀爀 琀漀 昀愀欀攀 琀攀猀琀椀渀最 猀琀愀渀搀愀爀搀猀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 䤀琀ᤀ猠 琀栀攀 甀渀搀攀爀 琀栀攀 琀愀戀氀攀 搀攀愀氀猀 眀椀琀栀 最漀瘀琀 漀昀昀椀挀椀愀氀猀 琀漀 最攀琀 愀爀漀甀渀搀 氀愀眀猀 漀爀 琀漀 愀瘀漀椀搀 琀栀攀 攀渀昀漀爀挀攀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 瀀攀渀愀氀琀椀攀猀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 䤀琀ᤀ猠 欀椀挀欀戀愀挀欀猀 漀爀 瀀愀礀洀攀渀琀猀 昀漀爀 ᰀ朠甀愀渀砀椀ᴀ†琀漀 瀀愀礀 昀漀爀 瀀愀猀琀 栀攀氀瀀 漀爀 瀀愀礀洀攀渀琀猀 琀漀 攀渀猀甀爀攀 琀栀攀 氀愀挀欀 漀昀 瀀爀漀戀氀攀洀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 昀甀琀甀爀攀⸀㰀⼀倀㸀

And even though corruption is endemic both types of corruption are, in my opinion, almost completely avoidable .  It’s not culture, it’s not Chinese and it’s not right.  You don’t have to participate and usually you can actively avoid most of it.  When it’s going on around you, you can do independent testing and QC and avoid much of the problems caused by the second type of corruption as well.

਀㰀倀㸀䴀礀 昀攀愀爀 椀猀 琀栀愀琀 愀猀 琀栀攀 唀匀 攀挀漀渀漀洀礀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀猀 琀漀 搀攀挀氀椀渀攀 愀渀搀 䌀栀椀渀愀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀猀 琀漀 爀椀猀攀 眀栀愀琀ᤀ猠 渀漀爀洀愀氀 椀渀 䌀栀椀渀愀 眀椀氀氀 猀氀漀眀氀礀 戀攀挀漀洀攀 渀漀爀洀愀氀 攀瘀攀爀礀眀栀攀爀攀 攀氀猀攀 琀漀漀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 䌀栀椀渀愀 椀猀 ⌀㜀㠀 漀甀琀 漀昀 ㄀㜀㠀 挀漀甀渀琀爀椀攀猀 爀愀渀欀攀搀 漀渀 琀栀攀 㰀䄀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀琀爀愀渀猀瀀愀爀攀渀挀礀⸀漀爀最⼀瀀漀氀椀挀礀开爀攀猀攀愀爀挀栀⼀猀甀爀瘀攀礀猀开椀渀搀椀挀攀猀⼀挀瀀椀⼀㈀ ㄀ ⼀爀攀猀甀氀琀猀∀㸀㈀ ㄀  䌀漀爀爀甀瀀琀椀漀渀 倀攀爀挀攀瀀琀椀漀渀 䤀渀搀攀砀㰀⼀䄀㸀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 䄀渀搀Ⰰ 愀猀 攀瘀攀爀礀漀渀攀 渀漀眀 欀渀漀眀猀 䌀栀椀渀愀 椀猀 愀氀猀漀 琀栀攀 眀漀爀氀搀ᤀ猠 猀攀挀漀渀搀 氀愀爀最攀猀琀 攀挀漀渀漀洀礀 愀渀搀 眀漀爀氀搀ᤀ猠 猀攀挀漀渀搀 漀爀 琀栀椀爀搀 氀愀爀最攀猀琀 洀愀渀甀昀愀挀琀甀爀攀 ⠀䨀愀瀀愀渀Ⰰ 䜀攀爀洀愀礀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 唀匀 漀琀栀攀爀 琀漀瀀 洀愀渀甀昀愀挀琀甀爀攀爀猀⤀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 匀漀 琀栀攀椀爀 氀漀眀攀爀 猀琀愀琀甀猀 椀渀 琀爀愀渀猀瀀愀爀攀渀挀礀 栀愀猀 愀渀 椀渀漀爀搀椀渀愀琀攀 ⠀渀攀最愀琀椀瘀攀⤀ 愀昀昀攀挀琀 漀渀 眀漀爀氀搀 戀甀猀椀渀攀猀猀⸀ ☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䄀渀搀 䤀 昀攀愀爀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀愀琀 攀昀昀攀挀琀 椀猀 最爀漀眀椀渀最⸀㰀⼀倀㸀

Two other reports that confirm my fears in round about ways.  One from a Chinese blogger on Weibo via This is China blog:  (actually quoting from a WSJ article):

਀㰀䈀䰀伀䌀䬀儀唀伀吀䔀㸀

“When a country is corrupt to the point that a single lightning strike can cause a train crash, the passing of a truck can collapse a bridge, and drinking a few bags of milk powder can cause kidney stones, none of us are exempted,” wrote another Weibo user. “China today is a train traveling through a lightning storm. None of us are spectators; all of us are passengers.”

਀㰀倀㸀ᰀ䔠最愀搀猀℀ᴀ†䤀 琀栀漀甀最栀琀 琀漀 洀礀猀攀氀昀Ⰰ ᰀ䤠ᤀ洠 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀漀猀攀 瀀愀猀猀攀渀最攀爀猀℀ᴀ㰠⼀倀㸀㰀⼀䈀䰀伀䌀䬀儀唀伀吀䔀㸀

I’ve had this thought myself many times in the last 3 years.  Corruption is not just wrong and a pain in the ass, it’s actually dangerous.  Is living in China worth the risk to my own life and my family members?

਀㰀倀㸀䄀渀搀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 愀 瘀椀搀攀漀 挀氀椀瀀 漀渀 㰀䄀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀戀氀漀最猀⸀眀猀樀⸀挀漀洀⼀挀栀椀渀愀爀攀愀氀琀椀洀攀⼀㈀ ㄀㄀⼀ 㠀⼀ ㄀⼀愀猀椀愀ⴀ琀漀搀愀礀ⴀ洀愀欀椀渀最ⴀ猀攀渀猀攀ⴀ漀昀ⴀ挀栀椀渀愀猀ⴀ渀甀洀戀攀爀猀⼀∀㸀吀栀攀 圀愀氀氀 匀琀爀攀攀琀 䨀漀甀爀渀愀氀猀 刀攀愀氀琀椀洀攀 刀攀瀀漀爀琀㰀⼀䄀㸀⸀ ☀渀戀猀瀀㬀䤀渀 愀渀 椀渀琀攀爀瘀椀攀眀 愀戀漀甀琀 栀椀猀 戀漀漀欀 愀渀搀 䌀栀椀渀攀猀攀 漀昀昀椀挀椀愀氀 猀琀愀琀椀猀琀椀挀猀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀吀漀洀 伀爀氀椀欀 戀愀猀椀挀愀氀氀礀 猀愀礀猀㨀 椀渀 愀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀 眀栀攀爀攀 琀栀攀 瀀爀攀猀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 挀漀甀爀琀猀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 椀渀搀攀瀀攀渀搀攀渀琀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 最漀瘀琀ᤀ猠 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀攀猀 昀漀爀 挀爀攀愀琀椀渀最⼀爀攀瀀漀爀琀椀渀最 猀琀愀琀椀猀琀椀挀猀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 琀爀愀渀猀瀀愀爀攀渀琀 礀漀甀 栀愀瘀攀 椀渀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 椀渀瘀攀猀琀漀爀猀 焀甀攀猀琀椀漀渀椀渀最 琀栀攀 瘀攀爀愀挀椀琀礀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀琀椀猀琀椀挀猀 琀栀攀洀猀攀氀瘀攀猀⸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀 䤀 眀漀甀氀搀 愀搀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀渀 愀 挀漀甀渀琀爀礀 眀栀攀爀攀 㰀䄀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀挀栀椀渀愀搀椀愀氀漀最甀攀⸀渀攀琀⼀愀爀琀椀挀氀攀⼀猀栀漀眀⼀猀椀渀最氀攀⼀攀渀⼀㐀㐀㌀㠀∀㸀攀渀琀椀爀攀 洀椀渀椀猀琀爀椀攀猀㰀⼀䄀㸀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀愀爀攀 洀愀猀猀椀瘀攀氀礀 挀漀爀爀甀瀀琀☀渀戀猀瀀㬀愀渀搀 最漀瘀攀爀渀洀攀渀琀 漀昀昀椀挀攀猀 琀攀氀氀 瀀攀漀瀀氀攀 琀漀 㰀䄀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀猀椀氀欀爀漀愀搀椀渀琀氀⸀渀攀琀⼀戀氀漀最⼀㈀  㠀⼀ 㘀⼀㄀㠀⼀琀栀攀ⴀ樀漀礀猀ⴀ漀昀ⴀ氀椀瘀椀渀最ⴀ椀渀ⴀ挀栀椀渀愀⼀─㈀ ∀㸀猀栀甀琀ⴀ甀瀀 漀爀 琀栀攀礀ᤀ氠氀 戀攀 愀爀爀攀猀琀攀搀㰀⼀䄀㸀 栀漀眀 挀愀渀 礀漀甀 琀爀甀猀琀 愀渀礀琀栀椀渀最⼀愀渀礀漀渀攀㼀℀㰀⼀倀㸀

Related articles on fakes in China here and here and my previous post here.