<HTML><HEAD> <META name=GENERATOR content="MSHTML 8.00.6001.19019"></HEAD> <BODY> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=' 8711"'>INTERNET IN CHINA</H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> As of 2010, there were 9 million domain names registered under  .cn compared to 1.1 million in 2006. The Chinese Academy of Sciences has estimated that the total amount of information stored on Chinese websites increased by 40 percent between 2005 and 2010. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The internet is the only place in China where the public can express views with near-freedom ? although they are rapidly cut off by an army of state censors if they stray into territory that attracts official disapproval. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Internet usage has grown very fast. Private citizens were granted access to the Internet only in 1995. At that time only 2,000 Chinese were plugged into Internet. In 1998, there around 1 million Internet subscribers, compared to 25 million in the United States. In 2001, there were 30 million Internet users, with about 20 percent of them gaining access through China s 60,000 or so Internet cafes. By 2003 there were 80 million Internet users, a 35 percent increase from the previous year. The number reached 160 million in June 2007; </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Internet service in China is cheap and accessible. In many cities you don t need to sign up with an Internet provider or pay monthly fees. If you have a modem all you need to do is call one of several numbers reserved for the Internet and you are charged at a rate of around 35 cents an hour on your phone bill. Many Internet users in China complain about slow Internet service. This is the result of the limited amount of broadband service and the use of government of filters. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The Chinese government encourages Internet use for education and business. It invested $138 billion in telecommunications networks between 2000 and 2005. Cisco has provided China with much of its Internet infrastructure including devices that block access to certain websites. . </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> In 2007, China surpassed the United States as the world s largest broadband user with more than 66.46 million residents subscribing to broadband services compared to 60.52 million in the United States. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> <STRONG>Good Websites and Sources on the Internet in China: </STRONG>Wikipedia article on Internet Censorship in China <A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_in_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China">Wikipedia </A>; Open Net Initiative on the Internet in China <A href="http://opennet.net/country/china">opennet.net </A>; Great Firewall Website Test <A href="http://www.websitepulse.com/help/testtools.china-test.html">/www.websitepulse.com </A>; Harvard Law School Report on Internet Filtering <A href="http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/filtering/china/">cyber.law.harvard.edu </A>; China Internet Network Information Center <A href="http://www.cnnic.net.cn/en/index/0O/index.htm">cnnic.net.cn </A>;The Berkeley China Internet Project and China Digital Times <A href="http://chinadigitaltimes.net/">chinadigitaltimes.net </A></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> <STRONG>Good Websites and Sources on the Chinese Media: </STRONG>Council of Foreign Relations on Media Censorship in China <A href="http://www.cfr.org/publication/11515/">cfr.org </A>; Danwei.org, an English-language blog on the Chinese media <A href="http://www.danwei.org/">danwei.org </A>; China Media Blog <A href="http://www.chinamediablog.com/en/">chinamediablog.com </A>; China Today <A href="http://www.chinatoday.com/med/a.htm">chinatoday.com </A>; Freedom House Report <A href="http://www.freedomhouse.org/uploads/special_report/33.pdf">freedomhouse.org </A>; List of Media in China <A href="http://media.mychinastart.com/">media.mychinastart.com </A>; Modern Chinese Literature and Culture (MCLC) Media Bibliography <A href="http://mclc.osu.edu/rc/filmbib.htm">Modern Chinese Literature and Culture (MCLC) </A>; News About China <A href="http://chinanews.bfn.org/index.html">chinanews.bfn.org</A> ; China Media Project <A href="http://cmp.hku.hk/">cmp.hku.hk </A>;China Digital Times <A href="http://chinadigitaltimes.net/">chinadigitaltimes.net </A></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> <STRONG>Links in this Website: </STRONG>CHINESE MEDIA <A href="http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=237&amp;catid=7&amp;subcatid=43">Factsanddetails.com/China </A>; CHINESE TELEVISION AND RADIO <A href="http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=236&amp;catid=7&amp;subcatid=43">Factsanddetails.com/China </A>; TELEVISION PROGRAMS <A href="http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=235&amp;catid=7&amp;subcatid=43">Factsanddetails.com/China </A>; CHINESE NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES <A href="http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=234&amp;catid=7&amp;subcatid=43">Factsanddetails.com/China </A>; COMMUNICATIONS AND CELL PHONES IN CHINA <A href="http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=230&amp;catid=7&amp;subcatid=44">Factsanddetails.com/China </A>; INTERNET IN CHINA <A href="http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=233&amp;catid=7&amp;subcatid=43">Factsanddetails.com/China </A>; GOVERNMENT CONTROL OF THE INTERNET <A href="http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=232&amp;catid=7&amp;subcatid=43">Factsanddetails.com/China </A>; INTERNET COMPANIES AND WEBSITES <A href="http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=231&amp;catid=7&amp;subcatid=43">Factsanddetails.com/China </A></P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=100>Internet Users in China </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> China is home to the world s largest Internet community. The number of Internet users in China reached about 300 million, or 23 percent of the population, in January 2009 and reached 384 million Internet users (about 30 percent of the population) in January 2010. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The number of Internet users in China reached about 253 million in June 2008, putting it ahead of the United States as the world s biggest Internet market. More than 90 million new users were added in the previous year. There is still a lot potential for growth still. In the United States there are about 220 million users. They make up 70 percent of the population. China is expected to have 500 million Internet users by 2012, with three quarter of web newcomers coming from rural areas. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Internet penetration remains relatively weak on a per capita basis: only about 10 percent of the population. Internet usage is highest in cities such as Shanghai and Beijing, where about 30 percent of the population goes online. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> 420 million Internet users in August 2010, compared too 240 million in the United States and 80 million in India. Many of China s 700 million cell phone owners have phones that can access the Internet. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Yasheung Huang, a professor of political economics at MIT, wrote in the Washington Post,  Anyone who has spent time online in China can testify hat the Internet community there is easily one of the most dynamic and vibrant in Earth. One any issue, there are passionate debates and opinions across the ideological spectrum. Maoists, Hayekians and Confucians trade barbs and insults. Blogs by serious intellectuals attract audiences unimaginable in the West. China  s market for ideas is enormous. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Some have argued that Internet community in China is so large and it is growing so fast that its that more stuff is getting past the censors than ever before. </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=03>Details on Internet Users in China </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> According to one survey, 85 percent of Chinese Internet users are males and half are under the age 24. These users tend to more interested in online games than e-commerce or research. Many are school children spend most of their free time online. Explaining the appeal of the Internet, one university student told the Los Angeles Times,  It s a great way to kill time and fill emptiness. Most of us can t afford to travel or do other things for fun. I don t know about the girls, but for the guys, it s our No. 1 recreational activity. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> One survey found that 63 percent of Internet users said they had home access and 41 percent used Internet cafes. Only three percent had direct access to broadband but many gained access to it through Internet cafes. A survey in 2005 found that 63 percent of users used e-mail, 30 percent participated in blogs, 27 percent used Google, 49 percent downloaded music, and 17 percent used the Net for online shopping. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Chinese in their 20s spend more time on the Internet than their American counterparts. A study conducted by the Boston Consulting Group found that people in China are far more connected than Americans, and that globally only the Japanese spend more time on the Web. A survey in 2008, found that 70 percent of Internet users in China were 30 or younger and high school students made up the fastest-growing sector of new users. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Li Yufei, a typical 18-year-old college student interviewed by the New York Times, He writes a blog, downloads Korean television shows, manages two Web sites devoted to music and plays an online game called Rongguang Hospital, at Baidu.com.  I started doing a lot of this when I was about 11 years old, Li said.  Now, I spend most of my leisure time on the Internet, he says. There s nowhere else to go. [Source: David Barboza, New York Times, April 18, 2010] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Li, a Shanghai Maritime University student, says he surfs the Web to find or build his own community. A shy person with no siblings, he now has 300 online buddies, and says he turns to the Web to find what he cannot find anywhere else, particularly on state-run TV,which banned some Korean shows years ago. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The Chinese are very fond of chat lines. Some online discussions seem as of they will never end. Many Chinese get their news from such sources. A survey in 2006 found China s Internet users are the world s have an average of seven chat room accounts. More than 40 percent of the online chat room users use instant messenger service for work purposes, 80 percent like voice chatting and 40 percent liked real time conferencing. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Chinese are not that big on e-mail, voice messaging and phone machines messages because they are not big on leaving messages period because they find that kind of interaction to be socially awkward. They prefer real time communications and tend to favor cell phones and text messaging. Those that regularly use their computer prefer instant messaging to e-mail. One survey found that 70 percent on Chinese online users use instant messaging while 56 percent use e-mail. In the United States only 39 percent of online users use instant messaging while 91 percent use e-mail </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Downloading music, movies and other copyrighted material for free is considered normal. Few Chinese have any qualms about doing it. Almost a third of the traffic on some search engines is searches for free music for MP3 players. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> A lot of attention is focused on the trivial and inane. For example, when U.S. President Obama visited China in late 2009, a big deal was made about the  Obama girl, an attractive young woman in a black dress and red ca that happened to be sitting behind hin during a town hall forum in Shanghai. A week after Obama left China a Google search of  Obama girl in red coat turned up nearly 7 million results. The woman, a student named Wang Zefei, found the attention unwanted,  I don t want toe popular in th this way, she said in her blog, I thought it would soon be quiet if I kept mum about,,,I turns out that my silence brings more suspicion. </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=3301>Internet Communication in China </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Internet users have proved to be very effective at spreading the word on everything from student protests to the latest shopping bargains. It is used by people of all political persuasions. Cybernationalists seize on anything seen as anti-Chinese and attack those who are perceived of instigating it. At the same time dissidents post petitions and open letters that criticize the government and farmers post video of demonstrations in YouTube. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Both nationalist and human rights concerns are largely driven through exchanges on Internet bulletin boards, text messages and e-mail. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Many young people spend their time communicating with their peers in online forums and instant messages the way American young people hang out at the mall and go to the movies. On these forums there is a high use of code words, word play and puns not only to make jokes and be clever but also to make serious comments that elude government minders. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Many Chinese who come in contact with foreigners like to be called by their Internet names. Jonathan Franzen wrote in The New Yorker that he traveled with Chinese birdwatchers who asked by to be called Stinky and Shadow, their Internet names. Stinky was quite an attractive young woman. When asked if she really wanted to be called Stinky she said yes. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> In the summer of 2009 someone anonymously posted a message on computer gaming forum that went:  Jia Junpeng, your Mom is calling you to come home and eat. For some reason the posting capture the imagination of the Chinese Internet world and became a source of jokes and messages and was even used by car dealerships and restaurants in their advertisements. A couple of guys in the marketing and advertising fields claimed credit for coming up with the phrase. A high school student in Nanjing named Jia Junpeg said he had nothing to it and said he wished people would leave him alone. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The expression  I m just here to buy soy sauce became an expression meaning  it has nothing to do with me after it was used by a passerby when he was asked what he thought about Hong Kong star s sex scandal. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> When Internet censors cracked down in the late 2000s Internet users responded with the posting a fictional llama-like animal called the grass-mud horse that on Chinese lore defeated the invading river crabs. It turns out the pronunciations of the horse is almost the same as an obscene expression referring to one s mother and river crabs became an allusion to censors. The creature appeared on T-shirts and stuffed toys. </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=1500>Internet Promotion in China</H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> He Fei said,   It is not easy to become an Internet promoter. A good promoter must have broad knowledge as well as understand netizen psychology; he must have good planning skills as well as write well; he must have good media resources. After several years of involvement in this area, He Fei realizes that this is not an easy business.  Unless you have powerful Internet appeal, your posts will be drowned out and never be picked up.  [Source: Southern Metropolis Daily, EastSouthWestNorth, April 18, 2010] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  There are about 1,000 Internet promotion companies in mainland China, employing at least 100,000 persons. Internet promotion is a nascent business which has many problems. A private company owner who had asked an Internet promoter to market his services said frankly: There are no standards for the price and quality of Internet promotion, so that one can spend big money and fail to achieve the desired results. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> According to information, certain unethical Internet promoters not only hype brands, sell products and handle public relations crises, but they will also run massive campaigns to malign and libel their clients' competitors and even control public opinion to affect court decisions. This phenomenon is known as  Internet triad society. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  When these Internet promoters work for a company, they will analyze group psychology and customize their messages to factors such as  angry young people,  hatred of wealthy people,  sympathy for the weak and vulnerable, etc. When they write posts, they make sure that they make some spelling and/or grammatical errors somewhere to prove authenticity. They will also hire a  navy fleet consisting of university students and unemployed idlers -- usually, each team consists of 100 persons and each company worker manages 10 teams; if five company workers work on a project, that means the  navy fleet may consists of fifty teams totaling 5,000 persons. Some companies usually have the addresses of tens of thousands of forums. So a single post is liable to show up at several thousand forums. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Since Internet libel is hard to prove and posters are hard to track down, companies find it hard to seek legal redress. Thus, some companies are calling for legal reform to make the posters liable. </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=1600>Deleting Comments and Other Underhanded Internet Marketing Tactics in China</H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  Posting negative comments on the Web about products and services is fast becoming the most popular channel for Chinese consumers to vent their spleen. Yet, behind this veneer of free expression lies a murky world of cyber bullies and unscrupulous webmasters who are manipulating the media to either promote or smear a company's image for profit.  [Source: Duan Yan, China Daily, June 17, 2010] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Among the services of Internet public relations agencies are removing any negative feedback they find.  Real estate, cars, electronics: These are usually the most lucrative when it comes to deleting negative posts, Ma Mingdong, a 25-year-old Beijing blogger and online marketer, told the China Daily.  Many people think it's complicated to delete posts but it isn't. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  He said it costs just a few hundred yuan to bribe staff at a website or forum to delete posts, and if that fails,  paid posters  netizens hired to leave fake comments and delete genuine ones - can use software to copy the official documents and identification that websites need before they agree to remove a comment. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  Several chat groups on QQ, the instant messaging service, have even become mini-trading centers where PR firms regularly advertise for paid posters, otherwise known as shuijun, the  water army . However, industry experts argue that the use of shuijun undermines consumer trust in the Web, as well as underlines the need for stricter policies to protect the rights of netizens and ensure fair competition. [Ibid] </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=1700>Fake Comments on the Web in China</H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> More worrying, perhaps, is the growing use of fake negative comments by websites to pressure businesses into advertising with them. Wang Yu (not his real name) worked as a Web editor for a property website in Jiangsu province after graduating from college in 2007. He said his job involved copying various articles about real estate agents from other sites and then leaving fake complaints about them under any number of pre-registered user names. [Source: Duan Yan, China Daily, June 17, 2010] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  Negative comments are like intangible assets, the 26-year-old told the China Daily , before explaining that the companies usually responded to his comments  about poor service and bad construction by offering to advertise with the site - on condition that the posts are deleted. It is a common problem faced by many Chinese businesses, and can be particularly hard on small, family-run firms that cannot afford to hire a PR firm to protect their reputation. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  Deleting news articles is difficult, but deleting posts from online forums is very common nowadays, only the price changes, said Li Haigang, founder of Caogen PR, an Internet marketing company.  If one of my clients gets negative posts on certain online forum, everyone would say, 'Oh, they are in trouble' - but only because this forum charges more than the others. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Although arguably ethically wrong, there is no law stopping this practice and is deemed legitimate if both sides reach an agreement. On top of that a recent online survey by sina.com, a Chinese news website, found that one-third of the 783 netizens polled see the media as the most efficient way to solve a dispute. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> For those people who have noticed their posts being deleted, however, they say they have already lost faith in what they read on the Web.  I don't trust websites anymore, said blogger Ma Mingdong, who has given up posting negative articles.  My posts are just tools for these websites to make money. </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=105>Blogs in China </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> There are around 30 million active blogs in China. It is very easy to start a blog in China. It takes only a few minutes and requires no proof of identify. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> It is possible to create blogs about Tiananmen Square, Falun Gong and that criticize government leaders and even post  Let s overthrow the Communist Party! They won t be censored until they get a certain number of readers. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The blog of actress Xu Jinglei has attracted more than 174 million hits as of July 2008. At that time 10 other bloggers had attracted more than 100 million hits. Xu, an actress turned director, became the world s most widely read blogger in 2007 after her site recorded it 100 millionth page view within a 600 day period. Xu started her blog in October 2005 and published a book of here blogged articles in March 2006. Known for her intellect and beauty, Xu won a best director award for her film Letter From an Unknown Woman at a film festival in Spain. Her blog is about her cats, her favorite television shows, daily life and her work. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> A young woman with severe muscular dystrophy use a bog to campaign for right to die. In doing so she generated some interest in a topic normally ignored There are scores of beggar websites in which people run sites that say things like  Please donate one yuan, it will help me be rich! Users can click 1 yuan, 5 yuan or 10 yuan buttons and pay using through an online payment system that sends money to a bank card number. A typical beggar doesn t do very well, making around $40 a year. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Suicide Rabbit is a popular Internet comic that lampoons the frustrations and abuses that occur in everyday life in corrupt and feckless China. In one strip the eager-to-help rabbit grabs a fire extinguisher to put out a small fore then is burnt a crisp because the extinguisher contains chemicals that catch on fire rather than put the fire out. In another the rabbit is scolded by a low-level Beijing official who wants people to spit so he can make money by imposing fines on spitters. It creator Liu Gang is very careful not to cross the line of what is acceptable and make fun of fun of China s leaders. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> YouTube-style sites are popular. One of the most watched videos on the Internet in late 2007 was a clip from an Olympics promotion event to rebrand the CCTV sports channel as the  Olympics Channel in which the wife of a popular anchor on the channel crashed the event, grabbed the microphone and accused the anchor of sleeping with another woman. In January 2008, a Chinese couple sued a subway operator after a security video at a subway station showing them necking on a subway platform was downloaded on YouTube and received thousands of hits. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> One of the most popular sites in 2005 was a blog launched by a young woman known as Sister Lotus. It began as a quest to get advise on which university she should attend and expanded into an effort to find a boyfriend, with her providing a few suggestive but not obscene photos of herslef in various poses. The site drew millions of hits and started a phenomena that generated in own websites and blogs as well as magazine and newspaper articles. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> ???? The Tianxian sister ( goddess sister ) is minority girl from a remote mountain area of China that earned more than $250 million by being promoted through the Internet. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Wordpress and all the blogs and websites it created on have been blocked because of the presence of offensive keywords. Wordpress, owners and founder Matt Mullenweg, who was 25 in 2009, has refused to kowtow to Beijing s censors and has not removed the offensive keywords or made any other alterations that would allow it pass through the Great Firewall. </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=200>Top 10 Web Celebrities in China in 2009 </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The top web celebrities in 2009 according to to the People s Daily Online were: 1.Wang Zifei-Chinese Obama girl: Whether you consider President Obama's visit to China to have been a diplomatic success or not, it did manage to turn one young Chinese woman into the country's version of the infamous 'Obama Girl.' Wang Zifei, an MBA student from Shanghai, happened to sit behind Obama during a town hall meeting, and being photographed removing her red coat was enough to catapult her into the media spotlight causing a huge stir in cyberspace. In the wake of the incident, her blog clocked more than 1.3 million hits as she broke her silence to reveal the innocence behind the move. Ironically, this incident turned out to be her self-speculation with the purpose to make a name for herself. She made it to the top of our list for 2009. [Source: People's Daily Online. December 24, 2009] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> 2.Ren Yueli-hand-to-mouth amateur singer with soothing voice: Ren Yueli, an ordinary-looking girl, earned her livelihood by singing in an underpass of Xidan area, Beijing; her beautiful voice enjoyed with great appreciation from passers-by. After a video of her singing was released online, millions of hits made her a sensation in cyberspace, with various Internet users moved by her melodious singing as well as her unyielding fortitude. Just as in an inspiring movie, Ren's fate changed as she was recognized for her singing and composing talents as well as her optimism, artlessness and indomitable spirit. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> 3.Zeng Yike-one of top10 Happy Girls of 2009:Happy Girls 2009, a Chinese version of  American Idol , had passed its prime and strived to maintain its popularity until a contestant named Zeng Yike helped the show regain its popularity. Zeng's controversial singing stirred up widespread suspicion on the Internet questioning how her tremulous voice could qualify for the top 10. What's worse, her so-called 'original' composition was exposed as an act of plagiarism, which further fuelled criticism and sarcasm from netizens. Zeng's controversy brought home to people the reality of reality shows. Economic value is superior to musical talent. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> 4.Kang Xiaohan-candied hawthorn beauty: You probably wouldn't cast a second glance at the young girl on the street selling candied hawthorn (sugarcoated haws on a stick) if not for her youthful spirit and vivacious look. Kang, 19, earns her livelihood by selling tanghulu at the south gate of Xi'an Jiaotong University. She should have studied on the campus like her peers, but she had to take on the responsibility of being self-supporting. Her genuine smile and positive attitude won respect from her peers and fellow students. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> 5.Gong Mi-a Cecilia Cheung lookalike: Another contoversial contestant of Happy Girls 2009 was Gong Mi, who became a hit in various online forums for her resemblance to Hong Kong superstar Cecilia Cheung. Gong was frequently in the news, first due to her good look, then a rumor that it took plastic surgery to achieve her stunning beauty. The latest rumor was over claims her manager was actually Cheung's first agent. Gong withdrew from the Happy Girls contest due to illness, with her original goal for fame already achieved. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> 6.Kong Yansong-long-legged beauty: At 1.78 meters tall, Beijing Sport University student Kong Yansong is probably used to staring eyes looking admiringly at her super-long legs. But even this pretty student didn't realize how she would become an Internet sensation after photos started to circulate in cyberspace. She was selected by netizens as the winner of a beautiful legs competition, her biggest characteristic being her pair of extremely slender legs. Her photos have been widely circulated on the Internet with most people showing their appreciation for her stunning figure. Some, however, have questioned if her height, or the photos, are actually real. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> 7.Meng Kunyu-most handsome traffic cop in Beijing: For most a traffic police officer is not always the subject of their immediate love or admiration. But Meng Kunyu's accurate hand signals and patience while giving directions, earned him the title of  the most handsome traffic police officer in Beijing. Meng Kunyu, who was born in the 1980s, is a traffic police officer from the Guanganmen Team of Xuanwu District Branch under the Traffic Administration Bureau of Beijing and became a hit after a group of admiring students made a video of him and uploaded it on to the web. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> 8.Jia Junpeng - virtual character in cyberspace: Everyone knows his name, but has no idea of his existence. Jia Junpeng is an Internet meme and popular catchphrase within China. The post with the title in Chinese reads:  Jia Junpeng, your mother is telling you to go home for your meal appeared on the Chinese portal Baidu for the games forum. Amazingly, after only six hours, it attracted more than 400,000 viewers and 17,000 replies, most of which were posted by young people. This hot phenomenon soon circulated in cyberspace and the original sentence has millions of derivatives, such as  so and so, your mother is telling you to do this or that The Internet wonder is hugely popular and considered collective entertainment for netizens with its sense of humor as well as charm of language. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> 9.Gu Jiawen - bus beauty: It was a post on a local bulletin board that led to www stardom for one pretty young bus ticket seller. Gu Jiawen, 20, sells tickets aboard the No. 934 in Shanghai and lived in relative obscurity until a web posting highlighting her natural beauty was seen by hundreds. Now as well as dealing with selling tickets, calling out stops or asking people to yield seats for senior citizens, Gu also has to deal with the affections of those who have seen her on the Internet. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> 10.Lu Aiyan - impersonation talent: He is the little comical genius who impressed cyberspace with his numerous facial expressions and timely lip-synching to the music of the late Michael Jackson. Lu Aiyan and his aptly named 'Super imitation show' received more than 1.3 million hits in just three days, which made him the youngest web celebrity of 2009. </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=300>I-Phone Girl Becomes Internet Superstar</H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  After a British iPhone 3G customer found pictures of a Foxconn Chinese factory worker giving the  V sign on his phone, the  iPhone Girl has become an Internet superstar. The story, and photos, has gone  viral traveling across the globe seemingly instantaneously reminding us how small the world has become. [Source: PCWorld, August 29, 2008] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  The story behind  iPhone Girl is this: A British iPhone customer turned on his new iPhone only to discover a picture of a cute young Chinese factory  girl assembling iPhones. In the photo she gives the victory (or maybe peace) sign. The iPhone owner reported his finding on MacRumors.com along with posting three pictures of the  girl he found on his phone. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  Then came the questions - and there were plenty. Some questioned the girl's age, and whether a harmless snapshot may be a small glimpse into child labor abuses. One person snapped up the Internet domain iPhonegirl.net and others have created Facebook and MySpace user accounts under the same name. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  Meanwhile in China the story captured the attention of Internet users. Interested Chinese Internet users took it upon themselves to track the factory worker down to Shenzhen, China and the company Foxconn, a Taiwanese company that makes iPhones for Apple. There is now a Chinese-language iPhone Girl Web site. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  Questions swirled on message boardss, would  iPhone Girl would be fired for the photos? The Internet breathed a sigh of relief when representatives from Foxconn weighed in confirming that  iPhone Girl was a worker at its plant and declared the photos were a  beautiful mistake. In an interview with China Daily the company gave assurances she would not be fired. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  According to a Washington Post report Foxconn says the young woman in the photo is a migrant worker from Hunan province and is overwhelmed by the media attention and wants to quit her job, go home, and remain anonymous. [Ibid] </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=400>Money Behind Internet Celebrity</H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">   Sister Furong,  Sister Phoenix and other ordinary people became Internet celebrities,  Jia Junpeng, your mother wants you to come home for dinner became a hot Internet phrase ... but netizens may not be aware that these so-called Internet fad which seemed to reflect public opinion were actually the works of certain groups of professional Internet promoter! [Source: Southern Metropolis Daily, EastSouthWestNorth, April 18, 2010] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  Recently, an Internet promoter from Xiamen revealed the money chain behind these Internet celebrities.Inside a non-descript office building in Stage 2 of Software Park in Xiamen city, a certain technology engineering company's Chief Executive Officer He Fei and his Internet promotion team were planning a project. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">   Our goal is to find a unique product to build a hot topic, so that the company will gain a reputation in the B2C platform. He Fei told our reporter with a smile:  This method costs a lot less than traditional advertising, but the results can be even better.  [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">   For example, doesn't the currently very hot Sister Phoenix want a cosmetic make-over? If a hospital hires her to make an advertisement for cosmetic make-over, the results would definitely be good. If a bridal salon hires her to make an advertisement, the results just may be astonishing. In He Fei's view, the Internet promoters who spent so much time to cultivate Sister Phoenix into an Internet celebrity are now ready to  harvest.  Now that Sister Phoenix has become an 'alternate star,' the Internet promoters behind her are now 'star agents'.  [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  Several years ago, He Fei represented the unsold sports shoes for an international brand. In order to get rid of this inventory as quickly as possible, they went to some famous forums and made posts to complain as consumers that the company was selling fake shoes without any air cushions inside. They demanded that the company compensate them 10 times their purchase price. Then a  webmaster interceded in the name of  justice and said that the shoes were genuine, based upon comparisons with photos taken at the specialty store for the international brand. However, the  consumers refused to take his word. The story ended with a live  dissection of a pair of shoes in front of the company representatives and the consumers that confirmed that the shoes were  authentic.  [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">   This 'Internet debate' drew a great deal of attention through postings and re-postings. He Fei said proudly.  The final result was that more than 700 pairs of shoes were sold at the cost of just over 1,000 yuan in expenses.  [Ibid] </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=106>Sex and the Internet in China </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The sex columnist Mu Zimei (Muzi mei) became a national celebrity after she began reporting intimate details about her sex life in her blog. By some counts her reports received 10 million hits a day. The site was particularly busy when she wrote about a parking lot encounter with a famous Chinese rock star and said it wasn t very exciting. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Mu s real name is Li Li. She began her career as a fashion writer for glossy magazines before becoming a sex columnist and writing about  real life issues. Mu said she started having sex without knowing anything about birth control. By the age of 25, she said she had slept with about 70 men. She told the New York Times,  I think my private life is very interesting. I do not oppose love, but I oppose loyalty. She told the Washington Post,  I want freedom. I don t care about morality. I have the right to make love and the right to enjoy it. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The blog launched the  Muzi Mei craze. Mu gave advise on what music to play when making love, offered tips and how to have good sex in a car and described the benefits of oysters as an aphrodisiac. But revelations of things like having sex with two men at the same time proved to be a little bit too much for the straightlaced Communists. Authorities banned her book and shut down her website. </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=117>Pornography on the Internet in China </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Pornographic web sites can be easily accessed by those with basic computer knowledge despite efforts by the government to block them. Telephone sex lines such as <EM>Taste of the Apple</EM> and <EM>Wild Nights</EM> can be accessed with cell or fixed line phones. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> As of 2004, there were over 1,000 pornographic sites operating in China, with some service providers receiving as much as 40 percent of their income form such sites. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The Chinese government does its best to block pornographic web sites. In August 2004, it launched a multi-pronged attack against Internet porn that utilized sophisticated filters to block foreign as well as Chinese sites. Nearly 700 sites were shut down. One man was sentenced to 1 years in prison for spreading pornography via the <EM>Singing Phoenix Web</EM> site which had over 200,000 visitors. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> A new drive against online pornography was launched in April 2007. A Chinese official said the six month campaign would target cyber strip shows and sexually explicit images, stories and audio and video clips. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">In 2008 the Chinese government shut down two dozen video entertainment websites in accordance with new rules because of concerns that videos containing state secrets, pornography and images that could damage China s reputation could be released. </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=500>Internet as Entertainment in China </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The Internet is arguably China s prime entertainment service. David Barboza wrote in the New York Times,  Frustrated with media censorship, bland programming on state-run television and limits on the number of foreign films allowed to be shown in China each year, young people are logging onto the Web and downloading alternatives. Homegrown Web sites like Baidu, Tencent and Sina.com have captured millions of Chinese youths obsessed with online games, pirated movies and music, the raising of virtual vegetables, microblogging and instant messaging. A lot of young people complain that there is not much else to do.[Source: David Barboza, New York Times, April 18, 2010] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Li Yufei, a typical 18-year-old college student interviewed by the New York Times, He writes a blog, downloads Korean television shows, manages two Web sites devoted to music and plays an online game called Rongguang Hospital, at Baidu.com.  I started doing a lot of this when I was about 11 years old, Li said.  Now, I spend most of my leisure time on the Internet, he says. There s nowhere else to go. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> One of the more remarkable developments in the Internet in recent years has been the informal network of young people who volunteer to produce Chinese subtitles for popular American television series like Prison Break and Gossip Girl. The Chinese subtitles are often translated within hours of the program s showing in the United States, and then attached to the video and made freely available on Chinese file-sharing sites. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  The Web is really a reflection of real life, Gary Wang, founder and chief executive of Tudou, one of China s biggest video-sharing sites told the New York Times.  What people do in real life is they go to karaoke rooms, they go to bars, they get together with friends and they shop. And that s what they do online. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Every Chinese Internet company seems to be building its own online conglomerate to offer online games, shopping, blogs and bulletin boards. Few companies want to specialize. </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=600>Internet Television in China </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  Every month, about 300 million people in China are using a computer to watch Chinese TV dramas, Japanese and Korean sitcoms, and even American films and television series like Twilight and Gossip Girl . Live streaming of the recent World Cup also drew a huge online audience. David Barboza wrote in the New York Times.  Analysts say young people in China are even starting to favor free laptop-viewing over TV sets, in part as a way to make an end run around regulators, who often bar state-run TV networks from broadcasting shows that do not meet the approval of the Communist Party. [Source: David Barboza, New York Times, July 18, 2010] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  While Internet TV in the United States is in a nascent state, in China, it is already drawing a huge share of the world biggest Internet market, where an estimated 400 million people are on the Web. A market research firm based in Shanghai, iResearch, says advertising on Internet TV and Web video sites is expected to reach $346 million this year, up from $83 million in 2008. Big video sites like Youku, Tudou, KU6 and PPTV are spending aggressively to license content, produce original programming and buy the bandwidth necessary to store and broadcast content. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  In China, though, Internet TV occupies a unique position largely because it serves as an alternative to what many consider bland state-run programming. Global media companies like Disney are often restricted from winning television programming slots and are allowed to show only a limited number of films in China. Piracy is rampant in China, and TV viewership among young people is in decline. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  That may explain why Internet TV is booming in China. While most early video sites here focused on user-generated content or amateur videos posted by users many of those sites have recently evolved by offering licensed content, in-house productions, and loads of pirated films and television series that are uploaded to the sites by users... For instance, some of America most popular shows, including CSI, appear on Youku.com and Tudou.com just hours after being broadcast in the United States, usually with Chinese subtitles. Analysts say they do not know how much of the Internet TV content is pirated, but the fact that many of the sites continue to broadcast pirated television shows and films is a complicating factor. Most executives for the video sites say they are licensing a growing share of content and trying to stop users from uploading pirated content to their sites. [Ibid] </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=700>Chinese Companies and Internet Television in Internet </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> China s big Web portals and search engines including Baidu are scrambling to form competing video sites, many of which plan to license content from the United States and elsewhere.  Everyone wants to get in on this market now, says Li Yifei, chairwoman of VivaKi Greater China, part of the advertising and communications giant the Publicis Groupe, told the New York Times.  Suddenly there a change of attitude because people are watching a lot of online video. [Source: David Barboza, New York Times, July 18, 2010] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  Through various agents, we have purchased and are going to purchase more copyrighted content from foreign countries,  Victor Koo, the founder and chief executive at Youku, said told the New York Times.  On the issue of pirated foreign movies uploaded by users, he added that the site had been working with the Mot ion Picture Association of America to improve its monitoring. But some analysts say illegal content is a major factor driving traffic to Internet TV and video sites and a taboo topic for the industry. Still, the analysts concede that Internet TV and video sites are gradually moving toward more original and licensed content, with some companies competing fiercely to buy popular Chinese and Korean television series. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Anita Huang, a spokeswoman for Tudou, based in Shanghai, says the company is positioning itself as a Chinese version of HBO . Vincent Tao, chief executive of PPTV, which provides licensed content, said his company was streaming N.B.A. games and producing original TV dramas. We are going to spend more to acquire foreign content, he said. We now have a deal with Warner Brothers . [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Strong challenges from newcomers to Internet TV could create a messy battle over the next few years. For instance, Baidu.com recently formed Qiyi, and if Baidu begins directing most video searches to its own site, that could harm other sites, since Baidu is China dominant search engine. Advertising agencies really want to transfer their advertising budgets to online video sites, there no question about it, Alan Yan, founder and chief executive at AdChina, said. But first, the video sites need to solve some of the copyright issues on the content. [Ibid] </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=800>Chinese Government Television Versus the Internet </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> It shift in viewing habits from television to the Internet is also attracting the attention of authorities in Beijing. They are tightening oversight of online video sites and also pushing state-run television networks to form their own Internet TV sites in an effort to retain control over what viewers can watch online. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> State-run networks in China are worried that entertainment is migrating to the Web and that young people are souring on television. So they are trying to jazz up their offerings with reality shows or programs modeled on American Idol. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Sometimes, though, network news divisions get even by investigating the follies of their Web competitors. In 2008, for instance, China Central Television  the biggest state-run network  ran an expos on how Baidu accepted money to bolster the search results of unlicensed medical companies. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> The State Administration shut down a lot of the popular Japanese and Korean series a long time ago. Many young Chinese who like these shows watch them with subtitles provided by fans. </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=900>Trends in Internet Video in China</H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Blog China Hush reported:  The idea of  webisode started in the western world, a new trend which provides opportunities for individuals or small groups to create media content that can potentially become popular. As we observe, user generated content / webisodes is the latest growing trend on the China s Internet media market. Let s see some examples. [Source: China Hush, June 21, 2010] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Some examples:  A personal video diary of a college girl named Liu Xiaoxi, who on the video rambles about her plans and dreams, about nothing and about everything in her life. Looks very much like a typical user-generated video, but in my opinion has the potential to become a popular web reality show. The idea of  anyone can be a director / actor encourages people to bring out their talents, with the exposure of hundreds of millions of Chinese Internet users, webispodes as simple and low budget as  Liu Xiaoxi could just be the next hit. [Ibid] </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif">  <EM>Office Hip-Hop Quartet </EM>is currently one of the most successful online web dramas. With only eight episodes in the first season, the show has reached over 40 million total plays, with 5 million per episode, higher than some of the traditional television ratings. [Ibid] </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=3361>Computers in China </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> In 2004, China passed Japan to become the world s second largest personal computer market after the United States. There were an estimated 42 million computers in China in 2005, up from 10 million in 2000. Ten million people bought personal computers in China in 2001 up from 3 million in 1997. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> China spent $16 billion on information technology products and services in 2005. By 2010 this figure is expected to rise to $50 billion. Computers are known as electronic brains in China. A map of Chengdu in Sichuan shows "Electronic Brain Street." </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Oracle, Motorola, Intel, Siemens, IBM, General Electric and Nokia all have research facilities in China. On of the biggest fear that foreign companies have working in China is that their patents ideas and copyrights will be stolen </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Programmers in Beijing and Guangzhou produce code for computer games designed in Taiwan and Japan. Fearing too much dependance on Microsoft software, Beijing has backed the Linux system. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> According to a survey in 2005, China was the third leading producer of spam after the United States and South Korea. It produced 15.7 percent of the world s spam, up from 6 percent in 2004. The United States produces 26.4 percent. Many of the spam e-mails luring people to online dating services and adult-oriented sites that reach Japan originate in Chinese servers. China has also been the source of a number of viruses. In 1989 the "Li Ping" virus asked computer user if they liked "Li Peng" if the answer was yes the computer s hard disk was wiped out. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> See Technology Industry, Economics </P> <P><STRONG> <H3 id=01>Pirated Software in China </H3></STRONG> <P></P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> According to one report 98 percent of the software used in China is pirated, accounting for billion of dollars in losses to Chinese and foreign software developers every year. The latest video games and Microsoft software are widely available in pirated form. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> U.S. software companies, Microsoft, WordPerfect and Autodesk won a landmark victory in Chinese courts against a Chinese company Juren Computer Company in Beijing that was pirating the company's software. Juren was ordered to pay the equivalent of $53,600 damages and stop pirating software. The ruling should, many hoped would set a precedent allowing foreigner companies to punish other pirates and counterfeiters. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Sony released Playstation II much later in China than it did in other places partly over concerns about pirating. A report from an investigation by Sony released in 2004, revealed that at least 10 pirating operations in China were producing 50,000 Playsation consoles a year. In one case the consoles were assembled at prison. In some cases the factories were raided and their owners were fined but the factories quickly resumed operation. </P> <P><IMG class=pmark alt="" src="ctspmark.gif"> Countries with the highest rates of software piracy (pirate software as a percentage of software sold): 1) Vietnam (92 percent); 2) Ukraine (91 percent); 3) China (90 percent); 4) and 5) Indonesia and Russia (87 percent); 6) Kazakhstan (85 percent); 7) Serbia-Montenegro (81 percent). The piracy rate in North America by contrast in 22 percent. [Source: Business Software Alliance and International Data Corp. study of 70 countries, 2005] </P> <P>Image Sources: </P> <P>Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications. </P> <P class=gopagetop><A href="http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=233&amp;catid=7&amp;subcatid=43#">Page Top</A></P> <P> 2008 Jeffrey Hays </P> <P>Last updated March 2011 </P></BODY></HTML>